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Boiler failure

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Boiler failure

Boiler failure.

Reason for boiler Failure
Fire Tube
Water Tube
Mechanical, electricalfault/failure, maintenancetesting
35%
19%
Boiler water trouble
17%
36%
Personnel
16%
13%
Corrosion and erosion
11%
9%
Installation and designdeficiencies
10%
8%
Defective material
8%
3%
Other reasons-miscellaneous
3%
 

Boiler fittings – Regulations

According to Factory and Machinery Act (Steam boiler & unfired pressure vessel) regulation,1970:
Every steam boiler shall be provided with:

1. Two or more Safety Valve
2. Two Water gauge
3. A steam pressure gauge
4. A blow down valve or cock
5. Two feed water pump
6. A main steam stop valve
7. A feed check valve
8. An inspector’s test pressure gauge attachment
9. A fusible plug
10. A low water alarm
11. A low water fuel cut out
12. Manufacturer’s name plate
13. Registration plate

Boiler safety

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes could also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who loaded coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds ofhorsepower to operate factories could demolish entire buildings. 

lA boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. 

Draining of the boiler could also occur if a leak occurred in the steam supply lines that was larger than the make-up water supply could replace.

Burner

An oil burner is a heating device which burns fuel oil. The oil isatomized in to a fine spray usually by forcing it under pressure through a nozzle. This spray is usually ignited by an electric spark with the air being forced through by an electric fan. 

Burner

An oil burner is a heating device which burns fuel oil. The oil isatomized in to a fine spray usually by forcing it under pressure through a nozzle. This spray is usually ignited by an electric spark with the air being forced through by an electric fan.

Flame and Smoke

Flame
-A yellowish orange, rolling flame indicates good combustion.
-An incandescent white flame with jagged edges shows excess air
-A reddish, smoky flame indicates insufficient air
oSmoke
-A light brown haze at the stake usually indicates efficientcombustion
-Black smoke at the stake usually indicates insufficient air
-White smoke at the stake  indicates a large amount  of excess air

Boiler Difference

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water is heated. Vaporized fluid (steam) exits the boiler 

A closed former that is used to support stimulation at pressures that exceed atmospheric pressure, and includes superheater equipment and economizer and other equipment attached to it.

Draft

Q. What function does draft play in the combustion of fuel?
A. Draft provides the differential  pressure in a furnace to ensure the flow of the gases. Without draft, stagnation in the burning process would result and the fire or process of combustion would die from lack of air. Draft pushes or pulls air and the resultant flue gas through a boiler and up into the stack. The draft overcome the resistance to flow of the tubes, furnace walls, baffles, dampers and the chimney lining.

Natural  Draft
Natural draft is produced by the chimney into which the boiler exhausts. The cool air admit to the furnace, rushes in to displace the lighter hot gases in the furnace. Thus the hot gases rise (chimney effect), causing the natural draft.

Mechanical Draft
Mechanical draft  is produced artificially by mean of forced or induced draft fans. The chimney is still necessary on mechanical draft installation for venting the produced of combustion high enough not to be offensive to the surroundings.

Entry into the Boiler

1.1. Apply  PTW procedure
2.2. Ventilation and purging for 24 hrs (min 12 hrs)
3.3. Use oxygen analyser before entry
4.4. Carry out a bag of necessary tool
5.5. Enter the boiler with your head first ( vertical boiler: enter with leg first)
6.6. Remember to open top manhole first then follow up with bottom manhole cover (to prevent hot air to hitting you

Feedwater check valve

Feedwater check valve A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.
Fusible Plug is a threaded metal plug, usually of bronze, brass or gunmetal, with a tapered hole drilled completely through its length. This hole is sealed with a metal of low melting point, usually lead or tin. It is screwed into the crown sheet (the top plate) of a steam engine firebox, typically extending about an inch into the water space above. Its purpose is to act as a last-resort safety device in the event of the water level falling dangerously low: when the top of the plug is out of the water it overheats, the lead core melts away and the resulting noisy release of steam into the firebox serves to warn the operators of the danger before the top of the firebox itself runs completely dry.
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