Steam generator boiler is a closed system made of steel used to produce steam. Or a plane that can be used to change the heat energy from the fuel given to water through the boilers so that steam is formed. To produce steam, the pressure on the boiler requires heat / heat, this heat comes from the fuel combustion process that occurs in the combustion chamber. Steam produced by a boiler is used as a working fluid or as a heating medium for various purposes, from household needs or to industrial needs. The process of steam boilers can be described simply as a cooking process, where in the heating of water it takes a source of heat energy to cook it.
Heating is obtained from solid fuel, liquid, gas or from electric power and other forces.The steam boiler process is a combination of equipment that works to produce heat with fluid media which is evaporated with capacity and pressure as well as certain temperatures, in general the steam is used outside the boiler.
The heating process in the steam boiler is carried out in three stages, as follows: 1. Heating process so that water becomes wet steam (Wet Steam) 2. The heating process so that saturated water becomes saturated steam (Saturated Steam) 3. The heating process so that saturated steam becomes further hot steam (SuperheatedSteam). The process of hot steam in the application sometimes requires further processing so that it is obtained dry steam for heating.
In addition water filling also needs special handling so that the steam formation process does not cause detrimental effects on the kettle. The whole process must be controlled so that the implementation of steam production is conditioned and does not endanger the operators and the surrounding environment. The boiler function is as producer of hot steam, while in the world the oil / steam from the boiler is used for: • Oil processing process •Heavy oil heating • As working fluid / steam turbine drive , steam engine Clean the oil pipe 1.2 Work Paper The working principle of a boiler (Saturated steam) can be seen in the picture below. Feed water after going through the pretreatment process in a softener or air condensation pump to the economizer. dichimney.
* Subsequently the feed water goes into the kettle but beforehand it is given chemical according to the prescribed dosage. After that the feed water which is heated in the steam boiler changes its phase into steam and is ready to be distributed. After steam turns the phase back into water (water condensate) then it can come back Already pumped into the kettle again. Make up water is only used to replace water loss due to the blowdown processGood Boiler Conditions A good boiler must meet the requirements reviewed in terms of technical, economic, and work safety. General requirements that must be met are:
Save in fuel use. Flexible operation (can adjust the rise and fall of the load). Concise and simple construction so that it is easy to operate and maintain. Has a good sludge disposal system. Can produce clean steam Material used meets the applicable standards. Equipped with safety equipment that meets the standards of the department of labor safety supervision of the Ministry of Manpower. The amount of heat lost due to radiation must be as small as possible. The distribution of hot gas from combustion must be good so that heat transfer can be maximized. Comparison of steam and water chambers, external channels and adequate water circulation. The boiler must be able to operate in a short period of time.
1.4 Conditions for Boiler Feed Water Boilers or steam boilers are a tool for steam generators where they function as a power transfer of calories. The heat energy contained in the steam is expressed by heat enthalpy. Matters that affect the efficiency of the boiler are the fuel and the quality of the boiler feed. Parameters that affect the quality of boiler feed water include: 1. Dissolved oxygen, in high quantities can cause corrosion of boiler equipment.
2. Failure, can control piping and process equipment and interrupt the process.3.Ph, if it is not in accordance with boiler feed water quality standards can cause corrosion of the equipment4. Solids, are Ca and Mg ion content which can cause cracks on the equipment and boiler piping so as to cause darkoverheating5.Fe, can cause water to color and settle in the water and boiler oxidation by oxygen In general, the water that will be used as boiler feed is water that does not contain elements that can cause deposits that can form crusts on boilers and water that do not contain elements that can cause corrosion of boilers.
1.5 Classification of Boilers Various forms of boilers have developed following technological advancements and evaluations of products Previous boiler products that are affected by exhaust gases which affect the environment and steel products as what will be produced. The following classification of boilers has been developed: a. Based on the type of pipe: Fire Tube: The type of fire pipe boiler has the characteristics: produce a capacity and low steam pressure. How it works:
ignition process occurs in the pipe, then the heat produced is delivered directly into the boiler containing water . The magnitude and construction of the boiler affects the capacity and pressure produced by the boiler. Water Tube: The type of water pipe boiler has the characteristics: produces a high capacity and steam pressure. How it works: the ignition process occurs outside the pipe, then the heat produced heats the water-filled pipe and previously the water is conditioned first through the economizer, then the produced steam is first collected in a steam drum. If the pressure and temperature are appropriate, through the secondary superheater stage and the new primary superheater steam is released into the main pipe distribution.
In water pipes, flowing water must be conditioned on minerals or other ingredients If compared with solid fuel and electricity boilers. The way of working: heating that occurs due to combustion between mixing liquid fuels (diesel, IDO, residue, kerosene) with oxygen and heat sources.
Gaseous Fuel Types of gas fuel boilers have characteristics: material prices cheapest bakupembakaran compared to all types of boilers. The efficiency of this type is better compared to all types of boilers based on fuel. How it works: combustion that occurs as a result of mixing gas fuel (LNG) with oxygen and heat sources. Electricity The type of electric boiler has characteristics: the price of heating raw materials is relatively cheaper than boilers that use liquid fuels. The value of efficiency of this type is lowest when compared to all tipeboilers based on their fuel. Working method: heating that occurs due to electricity sources that supply heat. c. Based on the use of boilers: Power Boilers Power boiler types have characteristics: its main use as steam generator as a power plant, and the remaining steam is used to run industrial processes. How it works:
the steam produced by this boiler uses a water tubeboiler type, the resulting steam has a large pressure and capacity, so it can rotate steam turbines and m generate electricity from the generator. Industrial Boiler Industrial boiler type has characteristics: its main uses are steam generator or hot water to run industrial processes and as additional heaters. How it works: the steam produced by this boiler can use a type of watertube or fire tube boiler, the resulting steam has a large capacity and pressure medium. Commercial Boiler The commercial boiler type has the following characteristics: the use of steam or hot water as a heater and in addition to carrying out commercial operations.
How it works: the steam produced by this boiler can use a type of watertube or fire tube boiler. large and low pressure. Residential Boiler Types of residential boilers have characteristics: their main uses are steam generator or low pressure hot water used for housing. How it works: the steam produced by this boiler uses n the type of fire tube boiler, the results of the steam produced have low pressure and capacity.
Types of heat recovery boilers have characteristics: their main uses are unused steam generator from hot steam. The results of this method are used to run industrial processes. How it works: the steam produced by this boiler uses a type of water tubeboiler or fire tube boiler, the result of the steam produced has a large pressure and capacity. Based on boiler construction: Package BoilerType package boiler has characteristics: boiler assembly carried out in the manufacturer’s factory, direct delivery in the form of a boiler. Site Erected Boiler Site erected boiler type has characteristics: boiler assembly is carried out where the boiler will be located, shipping is carried out per component
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION.
The word Fire Tube Boiler is interpreted in Indonesian which means it is a fire boiler. Fire Tube Boilers are a type of boiler where hot gas from the wind passes through one or more tubes running through a container covered in water. Another meaning of a fire tubeboiler is heat energy from a gas that passes through the side of a tube by thermal conduction, a water heater and finally creates steam. Construction of a steam boiler consists of a cylinder or tank filled with water where inside the tank there are arrangements of pipes gasasap. These pipes are the development of fire aisle boiler with development as follows: Small volume (contents of kettle water) are made smaller
The area of the heater can be cultivated larger The flow of smoke gas flow can be enlarged so that the gas flow of smoke does not quickly escape the boiler. With the above efforts can be achieved greater kettle efficiency and the capacity of the kettle can be enlarged but still less than 10 tons / hour with a pressure of less than 20 atm. In general, steam boilers pipe fire still has a tunnel that functions as a combustion chamber. Advantages of fire pipe boiler kettle:• Does not require high quality kettle filled water • Simple construction so that maintenance is easier
6 • Sediment sludge is easier to clean. Weaknesses of fire pipe boilers: • Initial heating takes a long time • The resulting vapor pressure is low • Steam capacity produced is small.2.2 Steam Boiler Equipment Main Equipment1. Kitchen or Furnace Furnace or combustion chamber in a steam boiler functions as a place where the combustion process takes place. Drum kettlePlace to accommodate feed water which is the raw material for steam and as a place of steam that has been formed.
In addition to being a reservoir of water and steam is also the body / casing of the kettle itself. Pipes / Tube boilers Pipes inside the boiler that continue the heat transfer from the burner as a hot gas pass through the furnace. Burner Burner or often called a gun burner is fuel atomizer to form small particles and mix with air so that it is flammable perfectly. 5. Superheater The device to increase the saturated steam temperature from evaporation of water directly becomes a further heat without being followed by a pressure increase.Blower on the steam boiler (force draft fan) which functions as a producer of air in the combustion process in the furnace.
7. Smokers The boiler section serves to remove combustion gas.2.3 Types of Fire Pipe Boilers / Boilers The Schots Steam BoilerThe steam regulator is planned so that fire and smoke are always in contact with the walls bordering water or steam, from the fire box through the pipes reaching the chimney to the exit. Marine boiler (ship) type of Scotch or tank used to work in the sea because of its compactness, efficient operation and its ability to use various types of water The disadvantage of this type is the size of a kettle drum, moreover using three cylinders.Drum large kettle requires thick walls so as to the large capacity of the steam boiler becomes expensive. ……
1: Schots Steam Boiler. Description of the picture:1. Fuel door. Downwind door3. Fuel frame4. Fuel frame support 5. Bridge of fire6. Fire cylinder7. Flame case 8. Fire pipes Picture description: 1. Fuel door 2. Bottom wind door 3. Fuel frame rods 4. Buffer fuel frame rod 5. Solid fuel layer 6. Ash ash = Ash pit7. Fire bridge = Fire Bridge
8. Fire cylinder = Fire Sylinder 9. Fire box = Fire Box10. Fire pipes = Fire Pipe. 11 Smoke box = Smoke box 12. Smoke gas block on the right and left kettle drum. 13 Smoke gas friend = Flue Gas Canal 14. Smoker = Chimney15. Drum down = Lower drum 16. Drum top = Upper drum17. Pipe connecting the steam drum dow pipe sucks towards further steam heating. 21. Sludge divider sump = saturated steam header 22. Heating pipes further steam = superheater pipes23. Steam collecting pool is heated further = steam superheater header 24. Main steam valve = Main steam valve 25. Steam heated further consumption menu 26. Wall kettle 27.
Boiler condition. 2.3.3. Steam Locomotive Kettle The working principle of this boiler is that on the back of the locomotive boiler there is a tuner which is a fire box and under the furnace is the number of fuel used to burn fuel. In the fire pipes, the steam heating pipes (superheater) are placed depending on the size of the small fire tube. The further hot steam produced by this steam boiler will make the expansion of the yorak steam engine or steam turbine that will drive the automotive wheels. ……
3: Locomotive Steam Boiler Description of the picture: 1. Fuel door 2. Fuel frame rod 3. Fire box 4. Bridge fire 5. Saving – tube api6. Pipes fire = fire pipe7. Smoke box = smoke box8. Smokers = chimney9. Steam vapor = steam dom10. Taking steam 11. Main steam valve 12. Steam control rods
12. Steering rod control. full steam to super heater15.Header or full steam divider16.Highheater pipes17.Headed steam collectors9. Panunjang 1 0 bridge. Bolts and supporting nuts 11. Hole of person2.2.2. Combination Steam BoilerThis steam setting is a form of refinement of the schots steam boiler. Requires two kettle drums with positions above and below. These cylinders are placed at the bottom while the pipes are at the top. The advantage of this boiler is that the use of a kettle drum can be smaller in diameter and biased thinner, can also be installed at the same time with a superheater and economizer. Combination Steam Boiler.18. The heated steam pipe is continued
19. Blowing20. Tank kettle.3.4. Upright Fire Pipe Kettle The weakness of the upright fire pipe is: a.Gas heat quickly out.b.Pipe pipe the top is not cooled directly so that it quickly breaks down.c. Initial heating is long enough → the contents of the water are too large compared to the area of heating.d. Steam the formed tends to stick to the pipe. Low capacity. f. Low working pressure. 2.3.5. Pipeline Steam Kettle Fire Cochran Construction of a boiler fire boiler in the form of a cylinder with horizontal pipes, the advantages are: a. Pipes are not coated with steam. The combustion chamber is below so that the circulation of water is better c. The foundation is quite narrow. self from water …… 4: Upright Dan Pipran Steam Pipe Kettle
CHAPTER II COVERAGE
3.1 Conclusion Steam generator / steam generator / boiler / boiler is a closed cover made of steel used to produce steam or aircraft units that can be used to change the heat energy of the fuel given to water through the boilers so that steam is formed. Classification of Boilers, Based on tube / pipe contents: Fire tunnel boilers, Fire pipe boilers (fire tube / smoke tube boilers), Water pipe boilers and Combination boilers. Boilers / Steam Boilers Fire Pipes, Fire pipe boiler boiler construction consists of a cylinder or a tank filled with water where in the tank there is an arrangement of pipes / tubes which are fed by smoke gas. Types of Steam Boilers / Kettles Fire Pipes namely Schots Steam Boilers, Steam BoilersCombination, Locomotive Steam Boilers, Upright Fire Pipe Kettles, and Fire Pipes Steam Boilers