Refractory & general engineering
A material called “refractory” if it is able to withstand a very high flame or temperature, continuously for a long time, without experiencing significant dimensional and property changes, and also resistant to abrasion and corrosion at high temperatures, both by objects solid, liquid and gas.
Refractory definition according to ASTM C 71
That is a non-metallic material with properties and chemical content that can be applied to form a structure or part of a system exposed by an environment of temperatures above 1000 ° F, 811 K, or 538 ° C.
- Classification based on chemical composition contained in the material
- Not easily affected or react with materials that are acidic, but easily affected by basic materials.
- Material that can react with a combination of Alumina-Silicate, namely hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, and fluorinated gases .
- In high temperature Acidic Refractories also react with Limes and basic oxides.
- It doesn’t change by alkaline materials but reacts easily with Aciid materials.
Many are used in basic areas and slags.
Examples of material: Pure alumina, Chrome and Carbon
- This material tends not to change in acidic or basic conditions.Generally used in areas where atmosphere conditions and slags are in an acid or basic state.
- Material classification based on the production method
- SHAPPED REFRACTORIES (FIRE BRICKS)
- Pessed bricks (Standard size & special size)
- Precast bricks
- Fused cast bricks
INSULATING FIRE BRICKS
- Hot face lining
- Back up lining
- UNSHAPPED REFRACTORIES (MONOLITIC REFRACTORIES)
- Dense castable refractories
- Insulating castable refractories
GUNNING CASTABLE REFRACTORIES
- Dense gunning castable refractories
- Insulating gunning castable refractories
- PLASTIC REFRACTORIES
- SPECIAL CASTABLE FOR REPAIR
- INJECTION CASTABLES
- REFRACTORY MORTAR
In general, refractory material is a material or material that can maintain its strength at high temperatures.
Whereas ASTM C71 defines refractory as “a non-metallic material that has chemical and physical properties that make it resistant to conditions above 1,000 ° F (811 K, 538 ° C)”
Refractory materials used in coatings for furnaces, kiln, incinerator and reactor and also used to make crucibles or insenerators.
Materials fire-resistant (refractory)must be resistant to chemical and physical treatment stable at high temperatures. Depending on the operating environment, refractory materials must be resistant to thermal shock, chemically and / or have a certain range of thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion.
Aluminum oxide (alumina), silicon (silica) and magnesium (magnesium) are the most important materials used in making refractories. Another oxide usually found in refractories is calcium oxide (lime). Fire clays are also widely used in making refractories.
Refractories must be chosen according to the conditions they will face. Some applications require special refractory materials. Zirconia is used when matter must withstand very high temperatures. Silicon carbide and carbon (graphite) are two other refractory materials that are used in some very severe temperature conditions, but they cannot be used in contact with oxygen, because they will oxidize and burn.
Binary compounds such as tungsten carbide or boron nitride can be very fire resistant. Hafnium carbide is the most refractory known binary compound, with a melting point of 3890 ° C. The ternary compound tantalum carbide hafnium has one of the highest melting points of all known compounds (4215 ° C).
Application of refractory and castable stones
Castable or Fire-resistant Cast Cement serves as patching and / or making printing. Usually used in Boilers, Furnaces, Smelting, Kiln, Dryer, Rotary, Incinerator, etc.
2. Bulk Density (gr / cm3):
|Fire Resistant Cement or Fire Mortar or Mortar is used as adhesive for refractory bricks. Cannot be used as brick acian.SPECIFICATION |
– Temp. Max’s work (C):
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