Boiler Functions and Components


Basically a boiler is a device that serves to heat water by using heat from the combustion of fuel, the heat from the combustion then the combustion heat is poured into the water to produce steam (water vapor that has high temperatures). From this understanding, we can conclude that the boiler functions to produce steam (steam) which can be used for subsequent processes / needs. As we know that steam can be used to maintain the temperature in the petroleum distillation column and the evaporation process in the evaporator. Generally the fuel used to heat the boiler is coal, gas, and fuel oil.

To get perfect combustion in the kettle, several conditions are needed, namely:

  1. Comparison of fuel consumption must be appropriate (shell and fiber)
  2. The air used must be sufficient
  3. The time needed for the combustion process must be sufficient.
  4. Enough heat to start combustion
  5. Sufficient density to propagate what flame

Parts of the Boiler and their Functions

Just as pumps, compressors and other factory equipment are composed of various components so that the device can operate and carry out its role. Boilers are also composed of various components with their respective functions. Below is the function of each component in the boiler, namely:

  1. FurnaceIgnition Furnace)

This part is the place where burning of fuel will be a source of heat, the process of receiving heat by water media is done through pipes that have been drained of water, the pipe is attached to the wall of the furnace. The process of transferring heat to the furnace occurs in three ways:

  1. Radiation heat transfer, where there will be a radiant heat from a fire or gas that will stick to the tube wall so that the heat will be absorbed by the fluid flowing in it.
  2. Conduction heat transfer, heat flows through the conduit from the side of the pipe that receives heat into the side of the pipe which gives heat to the water.
  3. Convection heat transfer. heat that occurs with the contact of water molecules so that heat will spread to every stream of water.

Boiler Fuel

  • Shells are a kind of solid fuel that is black shaped like a coconut shell and rather round, found on the inside of oil palm fruit which is covered by fibers. In this shell fuel there are various chemical elements including: Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2) and Abu. Where the chemical elements contained in shells have a different percentage (%). This shell fuel after undergoing the combustion process will turn into charcoal, then the charcoal in the presence of air in the kitchen will fly as a small particle size called the incandescent peaticle.
  • Fibers are solid fuels that are shaped like hair, if they have undergone a process of processing light brown color, these fibers are found in the second part of the oil palm fruit after the fruit husk of the oil palm.

There are reasons why fiber and shells are used as fuel are:

  • Shell and fiber fuels are quite available and easily obtained in the factory
  • Shells and fibers are waste from oil palm mills if not used
  • The calorific value of shell and fiber fuels meets the requirements to produce the heat needed. The remaining fuel combustion can be used as fertilizer for oil palm plants.
  • Prices are more economical.
Element Name Fibers Shell
Carbon (C) 40.15 61.34
Hydrogen (H 2 ) 4.25                   3.25
Oxygen (O 2 ) 30.12 31,16
Nitrogen (N2) 22,29 2.45
Abu (A) 3.19 1.8

Inside the furnace, the combustion chamber is divided into two parts, namely the first room and the second room. In the first room, there will be a direct heating of the heat source received by the tube (pipe), while in the second room at the top, the heat received comes from the hot air from the first combustion chamber. So, the function of the second heating room is to absorb the heat wasted from the first heating room, so that the free heat energy is not too large, and to control the heat of the fluid that has been heated in the first room so as not to experience excessive heat loss .

  1. Steam Drum

Steam drums function as a reservoir of hot water and where steam is formed. This drum holds saturated steam along with water with a ratio between 50% water and 50% steam. to avoid so that the water is not carried away by steam, then it is fitted with barriers, water that has a low temperature will drop down and high-temperature water will rise upwards and then evaporate.

  1. Superheater

It is a steam drying place, because the steam from the steam drum is still wet so it cannot be used. The advanced heating process uses a pipe superheater which is heated at a temperature of 260 ° C to 350 ° C.With this temperature, steam will dry out and can be used to drive turbines or for other equipment.

  1. Steam Air Heater

This component is a tool that serves to heat the air used to blow / blow the fuel to burn perfectly. The air that will be exhaled, before passing through the water heater has the same temperature as normal air temperature (outside temperature) of 38 ° C. However, once through the water heater, the air temperature will increase to 230 ° C so it can be used to eliminate the water content contained therein because the water vapor can interfere with the combustion process.

  1. Dust Collector (Ash Collector)

This section serves to capture or collect the ashes that are in the combustion flows up to the dissolved dust in exhaust gas. The advantage of using this tool is the combustion gases released into the air free of dust. The reason is none other than the dust can pollute the air in the surrounding environment, and aims to reduce the possibility of damage to the tool due to the friction of ash and sand.

  1. Ash pit / (Ash hole)

Space where ash accumulates under fire. ash fell through a fire fireplace into a removable box.

  1. Safety Valve

This tool serves to dispose of steam when the vapor pressure has exceeded a predetermined limit. This valve consists of two types, namely wet steam safety valve and dry steam safety valve. This safety valve can be adjusted according to the maximum specified aspect. In wet steam it is usually set at a pressure of 21 kg per cm squared, while for a dry steam safety valve it is set at a pressure of 20.5 kg per cm squared.

  1. Glass Estimator (Sight Glass)

The estimator glass is mounted on the upper drum which functions to determine the height of the water inside the drum. The aim is to facilitate the control of the water level in the kettle as long as the boiler is operating. These estimator glasses must be washed periodically to avoid clogging which makes the water level unreadable.

  1. Disposal of Water Kettles

This boiler component serves to remove water in the upper drum. Disposal of water is carried out if there are substances that cannot be dissolved, a simple example is the emergence of foam which can interfere with the observation of the glass estimator. To remove water from the drum, a blowdown valve is installed on the top drum, this valve works when the amount of foam has exceeded a predetermined limit.

  1. Ash Collector (Dust Collector)

    Dust Collector is an ash collection device or ash catcher that is along the combustion gas fuel flow until the exhaust gas.There is a number of advantages to using a Dust Collector, including the exhaust gas being clean, so it does not interfere with air pollution and does not cause damage to other assistive devices.

  2. Blowdown Continue

In this component it functions to dispose of kettle water which is carried out continuously. This is done if there are substances that do not dissolve. As foam or foam occurs on the surface of the kettle water which disrupts the role of the glass estimator. In addition, Blowdown Continue also functions to reduce the electric conductivity contained in the kettle water.

  1. Air Seal Damper

The air seal damper is a boiler component which consists of two dampers which are at the top and bottom which double open and close alternately to remove ash from the Dust collector and prevent outside air from entering due to IDF pulling

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