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Boiler Functions And Main Components

The function of boilers and their main components should be worth knowing, especially for those who are working in factories that use this tool. Basically, industrial equipment is indeed endless to be discussed, after in the previous article we have reviewed various kinds of industrial tools such as pumps, evaporators, desalter, condensers and so on. In this article we will discuss the boiler because this tool is one of the tools commonly used in oil refineries and in other factories. Of course you have all heard the name of this tool, but you may not understand what is meant by a boiler, the function of a boiler and its main components. To understand this, please read the review below.
Main Boiler Functions and Components
Basically a boiler is a device that serves to heat water by using heat from the combustion of fuel, the heat from the combustion then the combustion heat is poured into the water to produce steam (water vapor that has a high temperature). From this understanding, we can conclude that the boiler functions to produce steam (steam) which can be used for subsequent processes / needs. As we know that steam can be used to maintain the temperature in the petroleum distillation column and the evaporation process in the evaporator. Generally the fuel used to heat the boiler is coal, gas, and fuel oil.

Parts of the Boiler and their Functions

Just as pumps, compressors and other factory equipment are composed of various components so that the device can operate and carry out its role. Boilers are also composed of various components with their respective functions. Below is the function of each component in the boiler, namely:

1. Furnace Ignition

This part is the place where burning of fuel will be a source of heat, the process of receiving heat by water media is done through pipes that have been drained of water, the pipe is attached to the wall of the furnace. The process of transferring heat to the furnace occurs in three ways:

  • Radiation heat transfer, where there will be a radiant heat from a fire or gas that will stick to the tube wall so that the heat will be absorbed by the fluid flowing in it.
  • Conduction heat transfer, heat flows through the conduit from the side of the pipe that receives heat into the side of the pipe which gives heat to the water.
  • Convection heat transfer. heat that occurs with the contact of water molecules so that heat will spread to every stream of water.
Inside the furnace, the combustion chamber is divided into two parts, namely the first room and the second room. In the first room, there will be a direct heating of the heat source received by the tube (pipe), while in the second room at the top, the heat received comes from the hot air from the first combustion chamber. So, the function of the second heating room is to absorb the heat wasted from the first heating room, so that the free heat energy is not too large, and to control the heat of the fluid that has been heated in the first room so as not to experience excessive heat loss .
Steam drums function as a reservoir of hot water and where steam is formed. This drum holds saturated steam along with water with a ratio between 50% water and 50% steam. to avoid so that the water is not carried away by steam, then it is fitted with barriers, water that has a low temperature will drop down and high-temperature water will rise upwards and then evaporate.

3. Superheater

It is a steam drying place, because the steam from the steam drum is still wet so it cannot be used. The advanced heating process uses a pipe superheater which is heated at a temperature of 260 ° C to 350 ° C. With this temperature, steam will dry out and can be used to drive turbines or for other equipment.

4. Water Heater

This component is a tool that serves to heat the air used to blow / blow fuel so that it can burn completely. The air to be exhaled, before passing through the water heater has the same temperature as the normal air temperature (outside temperature) which is 38 ° C. However, after going through the air heater, the temperature of the air will increase to 230 ° C so that it can be used to eliminate the water content contained in it because water vapor can disrupt the combustion process.

5. Dust Collector (Ash Collector)

This section serves to capture or collect the ash in the combustion stream until the dust that follows the exhaust gas. The advantage of using this tool is the combustion gases which are discharged into the air free of dust. The reason is no other because dust can pollute the air in the surrounding environment, and aims to reduce the possibility of damage to the tool due to the friction of ash and sand.

6. Used Gas Disposal Regulator

Smoke from the combustion chamber sucked by an IDF (Induced Draft Fan) blower through a dust collector will then be discharged through the chimney. The smoke gas regulator is arranged in advance as needed before the IDF is turned on, because the bigger the damper is opened, the greater the suction that will occur from inside the furnace.

7. Safety Valve

This tool serves to dispose of steam when the vapor pressure has exceeded a predetermined limit. This valve consists of two types, namely wet steam safety valve and dry steam safety valve. This safety valve can be adjusted according to the maximum specified aspect. In wet steam it is usually set at a pressure of 21 kg per cm squared, while for a dry steam safety valve it is set at a pressure of 20.5 kg per cm squared.

8. Glass Estimator (Sight Glass)

The estimator glass is mounted on the upper drum which functions to determine the height of the water inside the drum. The aim is to facilitate the control of the water level in the kettle as long as the boiler is operating. These estimator glasses must be washed periodically to avoid clogging which makes the water level unreadable.

9. Disposal of Water Kettles

This boiler component serves to remove water in the upper drum. Disposal of water is carried out if there are substances that cannot be dissolved, a simple example is the emergence of foam which can interfere with the observation of the glass estimator. To remove water from the drum, a blowdown valve is installed on the top drum, this valve works when the amount of foam has exceeded a predetermined limit. 

Also Read: Types of Boilers Based on How They Work

Some of our discussions about the functions of boilers and their main components, hopefully useful for readers, especially those who have activities in the  industrial field and for those who are studying. Of course this article still has many shortcomings, so please understand. Let’s study together, thank you!
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