Steam Boiler- Tanker Boiler Maker
In this final project a technical and economical analysis was carried out from the initial design using a steam boiler replaced with
a thermal oil boiler. Technical analysis was carried out to find out how a suitable thermal oil boiler heating system was
applied to the MV vessel. Amazon and economic calculations are carried out to determine the costs
needed in the replacement of the steam boiler heating system to a thermal oil boiler which includes costs
system investment, installation costs, work fluid costs and fuel costs. From the results of the calculation of the design of the
thermal oil boiler heating system, the MV vessel. Amazon obtained boiler capacity of 581 kW, heating fluid
using Calflo LF produced by Petro Canada. The thermal oil boiler system uses a ciculating pump of
21.66 m3 / hour and the supply pump is 2 m3 / hour. From the results of economic calculations it is found that the investment costs and
fluid costs of steam boilers are more economical than thermal oil boilers, while the thermal fuel
oil boiler costs are more economical than steam boilers.
Keywords: Heating System, Thermal oil boiler, Steam boiler, HFO, MV.Amazon
The ship that uses heavy fuel oil (HFO) type fuel requires a heater to maintain fuel viscosity. A heating system requires a heat source, heat transfer and heat exchanger. Heat sources in each fuel heater usually use a boiler, while the heat transfer, which is the type of fluid used depends on the type of heating system used.
In the world of shipping there have been known several fuel heating systems, namely by using steam, hot water and hermal oil. Each has different characteristics. Thermal oil boilers are able to work to reach temperatures of 250 0C with a working pressure with atmospheric pressure. In the steam boiler to reach the same temperature, it requires working pressure to reach 40 kg / cm2.
The MV AMAZON ship is a
container ship by shipping Surabaya – Jayapura. This ship uses the main engine SULZER type RTA 58 which supports HFO and MDO fuels. HFO fuel is a residual oil fuel that has a higher viscosity
compared to other types of fuel. So that the HFO fuel system requires a heating system to reduce the viscosity value to 14-17 cSt or according to the viscosity required by the main engine.
Heaters are installed
in storage, settling and service tanks, also on the piping system before entering the separator and main engine by using a heater, namely the separator preheater and final heater. The initial design of the heating system on this vessel uses a steam boiler with DONKEY BOILER brand specificationstype V4–0-TFO-008 with a steam capacity of 1800 kg / h planned to be replaced into a thermal oil boiler heating system. The steam boiler heating system and thermal oil boiler have different characteristics, namely: in the form of boiler working pressure and the type of fluid used. With the different characteristics of the two heating systems, it is necessary to do a technical analysis of the thermal oil boiler heating system when applied to the Amazon Mv vessel. In addition to the technical aspects of the heating system changes, economic analysis is also important to determine how the economic value of the installation of the thermal oil boiler
heating system .
Formulation of Problems The formulation of the problem raised in this final project is:
1. How is the suitable thermal oil boiler heating system to
be applied to the MV Amazon vessel?
2. What is the economic analysis of the use of thermal oil boilers when applied to MV Amazon vessels?
. Limitation of Problems 1. Technical analysis carried out only for HFO fuel heating systems.
2. Data used is data from MV AMAZON
3. Determination of pipe insulation is carried out with
assumptions in accordance with recommendations through leterature studies.
Objectives The objectives of this final project are:
1. Obtain a technical description of the installation of a fuel heating system using a thermal oil boiler
planned for the MV Amazon.
2. Conduct an analysis of the calculations and characteristic studies of the characteristics of the HFO thermal oil boiler fuel heating system when applied to the MV Amazon vessel.
3. Analyzing the economical use of a thermal oil boiler on the MV Amazon.
1.5. Benefits The results of this final project are expected to be used
1. Providing an overview to the ship owner (MV AMAZON owner) regarding the
HFO fuel heating system if the type of boiler is converted into an oil thermal boiler.
2. Providing input to ship owners (MV AMAZON owner) in terms of costs
will be issued to the ship if the boiler used is converted into an oil thermal boiler type .
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Heat transfer in boilers must be designed to produce the maximum amount of heat to produce
efficient operation. The heat generated from combustion of fuel and air in the chamber boiler combustion is transmitted to the fluid to be heated through a heat field or heating surface in a boiler installation. This heat is transmitted in three ways, namely: radiation, flow (convection), and propagation (conduction). The percentage of each method of heat transfer depends on the previous boiler design. (Djokosetyardjo, 1993)
Heat transfer in boilers is:
2.2. Boiler type
2.2.1. Definition of
boilers or steam boilers is a heat plane which is a complex combination of systems and existing equipment. The complex combination of existing systems and equipment consists of the following equipment, namely: economical, superheat, reheater and air heater
2.2.2. Fire tube boiler A
fire tube boiler is a type of boiler where hot gas passes through pipes and boiler feed water is inside the shell to be converted into steam. Fire tube boilers are usually used for relatively small steam capacities with
low to moderate steam pressures . As a guideline, fire tube boilers are competitive for steam speeds up to 12,000 kg / hour with pressures up to 18 kg / cm2. Fire tube boilers can use fuel oil, gas or solid fuel in their
operations. For economic reasons, most fire tube boilers are constructed as “package” boilers (assembled by factories) for all fuels.
1. Fire tuber boiler
2.2.3. Boiler water tube
A boiler water tube is a type of boiler where boiler feed water flows through pipes into the drum. Circulated water is heated by the combustion gas to form steam in the steam area in the drum. This boiler is chosen if the
steam demand and steam pressure are very high as in the case of a boiler for power plants. A very modern water tube boiler designed with a steam capacity between 4,500-12,000 kg / hour, with very high pressure. Many water tube boilers are constructed in packages if fuel and gas are used. For water tubes that use solid fuel, it is not commonly designed in packages.
3. Characteristics of water tube boilers as follows:
– Forced, induced and balanced drafts help to improve combustion efficiency.
– Less tolerant of the quality of water produced from a water treatment plant.
– Allows for a higher level of heat efficiency.
2. Simple Diagram of Water Tube Boiler
2.3. Steam Boiler
Steam boilers are closed vessels where burning heat is flowed into the water until hot water or steam is formed. Hot water or steam at a certain pressure is then used to flow heat to a process
2.3.2. Steam Boiler System The
water supplied to the boiler for change of kesteam is called feed water. Two sources of feed water are:
(1) condensate or steam that condenses back from the process and
(2) makeup water (treated raw water) which must be fed from outside the boiler room of the plant system. To obtain higher boiler efficiency, an economizer is used to preheat feed water using waste heat in the exhaust gas.
3. Example of a steam boiler diagram
Picture description: Feed water before entering the steam boiler
(1), to increase the efficiency of the boilers the boiler is heated first through the economizer
(2), with the help of circulating pump
(3). After the feed water temperature rises, the water from the economizer enters the steam boiler to be produced to produce steam, which will be distributed to various needs
to support the ship’s operations. From the steam steamboiler, head to the daerator
(4), then pass the condenser dump. From the dump condenser to the system, including the to supply module (SULZER), to tracing pipelines, HFO fuels and so on. Saturated steam from the work of deaerating is accommodated in the expansion tank
2.3.3. Steam Boiler Components
In the picture above, there are several
components such as:
1. Steam boiler. Is a tool used to give heat to fluid (water)
2. Deaerator. It is a tool used to separate steam from its fluid.
3. Expansion tank. Is a tank that serves to accommodate saturated steam that comes from the deaerator’s work.
4. Circulating pump. The pump used to circulate fluid originating from the process towards the steam boiler.
5. Economizer. This tool is used so that the steam boiler is more efficient where the fluid going into the steam boiler will be
2.4. Thermal Oil Boiler
Thermal oil boiler is a boiler that uses a heating fluid of a special type of oil as a heat carrier, where the oil is heated in the boiler then circulated to the system.
2.4.2. The thermal oil oil boiler thermal system which acts as a heat carrier, is heated in a heater and circulated to the user’s equipment. Here the fluid transfers heat to the process through a heat exchanger where the fluid is returned to the heater. The thermal fluid flow at the end of the user is controlled by the controlling valve
pneumatically operated, based on operating temperature. The heater operates in combustion of fuel at high or low burners depending on the returning oil temperature which varies depending on the system load. In the thermal oil
boiler the pressure required is about 1 bar, capable of heating fluid around 300 0C
2.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermal Oil Boilers & Steam Boilers In every equipment such as thermal oil
boilers and steam boilers when compared there are several advantages and disadvantages including efficiency, operator licenses, corrosion and maintenance.
Thermal oil boiler discount greater efficiency than steam boilers, can even reach 5% – 8% higher than in the steam boiler.Thermal streatment oil does not need water as steam boiler so that no losses as steam boilers memiiliki some losses in the steam system such as blow down losses up to 5%, 1% evaporation losses and so on. In thermal oil boilers there are almost no losses.
2.5.2. Operator License
In some countries of the law, the law requires the boiler operator to have a license to oversee the operation of high
pressure fired steam systems. The annual cost per person can be more than $ 60,000, if calculated in rupiahs of
IDR 600,000,000.00 per year assuming 1 $ = IDR 10,000.00. whereas in thermal oil systems rarely ask for an
operator license .
In steam boilers has a problem with corrosion, which is caused by a combination of air with hot water, salt and other contamination that has the potential to produce corrosion. In addition there is addition of crust to water and deposits of minerals obtained at most from water supplies . There is no corrosion in thermal oil boiler because the working fluid used besides being used as a heat-conducting fludia also functions as a
Maintenance is focused on steam trap steam boiler, valve, condensate return pump, expansion joints and water analysis. Whereas in thermal oil, maintenace is more minimal and does not require (no require) steam traps, blowdown
or water additives.
2.5.5. Environmental Safety To reduce corrosion in the steam boiler, the water used is treated chemically, and should not be disposed of anywhere, because it can endanger the environment. In a thermal oil boiler to clean the fluid following the procedure, processing is easier, unlike steam boilers.